By Herbert Kitschelt, Steven I. Wilkinson
So much types of get together pageant think that electorate vote for a platform instead of narrowly special fabric advantages. in spite of the fact that, there are lots of international locations the place politicians win elections through giving cash, jobs, and companies in direct alternate for votes. this isn't simply real within the constructing global, but in addition in economically constructed international locations - reminiscent of Japan and Austria - that basically meet the definition of reliable, glossy democracies. This ebook bargains factors for why politicians have interaction in clientelistic behaviours and why electorate reply. utilizing newly amassed information on nationwide and sub-national styles of patronage and electoral festival, the participants reveal why factors in response to monetary modernization or electoral associations can't account for overseas version in patron-client and programmatic pageant. in its place, they express how the interplay of financial improvement, occasion festival, governance of the economic climate, and ethnic heterogeneity may match jointly to figure out the alternatives of buyers, consumers and regulations.
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Extra resources for Patrons, Clients and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition
Competition is less in a highly fragmented and ﬂuid party system with multiple coalition opportunities and in a hegemonic party system. It is under conditions of oligopoly that politicians have the greatest 18 19 For an earlier more sophisticated effort to conceptualize competitiveness, see Strom (1990). More recently, Franklin’s (2004) conceptualization is useful. For an extension of this literature, see Kitschelt (2006). This may entail, for example, the absence of institutional veto players that arises in systems with a division of power between independently elected executives (presidents) and legislatures and in many federalist and bicameralist systems.
Strategic dilemmas due to constituency heterogeneity. Relative scarcity of politicians’ asset control and heterogeneity of constituencies with some favoring and others rejecting clientelistic exchange makes it difﬁcult for politicians to maintain coherent parties. They may ultimately cut loose the remaining constituencies seeking clientelistic beneﬁts. S-4. Ethnocultural divisions facilitate supply of clientelistic linkage under conditions of economic development. The presence of clientelistic markers and of associated networks is relatively resistant to development and enables politicians to sustain clientelistic linkages much longer and at lower cost than in homogeneous societies.
Barro 1997; Easterly 2001; Easterly and Levine 2002; Knack 2003; Rodrik, Subramanian, and Trebbi 2002). “Good institutions” in the sense of the rule of law barring political rulers from directly intervening in the allocation of property rights on a case-by-case basis are closely intertwined with superior economic performance. This does not rule out, of course, that very different “varieties of capitalism” may yield equally favorable economic outcomes under certain circumstances (cf. Hall and Soskice 2001).