By Andre P. De Leenheer, Willy Lambert
3rd variation collects and examines the super proliferation of data on chromatographic research of fats and water soluble supplements during the last decade. widely describes pattern training and ultimate size.
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Extra resources for Modern chromatographic analysis of vitamins
In RP-LC systems, the retention of nonpolar carotenoids is often attributed to solvophobic interactions, but other properties of the solute may provide an additional basis for separation (181). A variety of bonded phase parameters such as endcapping, phase chemistry, ligand length, and substrate parameters were studied for their effects on column retention and selectivity toward carotenoids. The result was a C30 column designed with the properties of high absolute retention, enhanced shape recognition of structured solutes, and moderate silanol activity (182); the C30 stationary phase was much superior to Vydac 201TP54 or Suplex PKB-100 stationary phases in resolving six common carotenoids and their geometric isomers.
07 pmol, 20 pg in tear ﬂuid (111); 5-µL sample sizes have been used for routine plasma assays (112). Electrochemical detection has also been used for simultaneous analysis of retinol and tocopherol (113,114). Microbore columns and smaller packing particle sizes could give improved limits of detection (115,116) but require low-dispersion ﬁttings and detector cells. The requirements for plasma retinol quantitation are not so stringent that use of these techniques has become popular. Solvent extraction is not obligatory for analysis of serum retinol.
Landers and Olson used solvent optimization techniques to achieve separation of retinol and retinal oxime isomers on silica columns (137). The order of elution was : retinyl esters (unresolved) Ͻ 13-cis-retinal Ͻ 11-cis-retinal Ͻ 9-cis-retinal Ͻ 7-cis-retinal Ͻ all-trans-retinal Ͻ syn 11-cis-retinal oxime Ͻ syn all-trans-retinal oxime Ͻ syn 9-cis-retinal oxime ϩ syn 13-cis-retinal oxime Ͻ anti 13-cis-retinal oxime Ͻ anti 11-cis-retinal oxime Ͻ 11-cis-retinol Ͻ 13-cis-retinol Ͻ anti 9-cis-retinal oxime Ͻ 9,11- dicisretinol ϩ 9,13-dicis-retinol Ͻ anti all-trans-retinal oxime Ͻ 9-cis-retinol Ͻ alltrans-retinol Ͻ syn 9,11-dicis-retinal oxime Ͻ syn 7-cis-retinal oxime Ͻ syn 9,13-dicis-retinal oxime Ͻ anti 9,13-dicis-retinal oxime Ͻ anti 9,11-dicis-retinal oxime Ͻ anti 7-cis-retinal oxime Ͻ 7-cis-retinol, using ethyl acetate: dioxane: 1-octanol: hexane as mobile phase; retention of retinol isomers relative to retinals and retinal oximes could be shifted by varying the proportion of 1-octanol (138).