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Additional resources for Epistemology and Spiritual Authority - The development of epistemology and logic in the old Nyaya and the Buddhist school of epistemology
When at a certain time we see thing B alone, we infer thing A to be present as well. In the case of smoke and fire, smoke is considered to be the property of fire. One might question the admissibility of these substitutions, but consider the following use made by Paksilasvamin of the terms property, linga and property-bearer, lingin. apratyakse lingalinginoh sambandhe kenacid arthena lingasya samanyad apratyakso lingi gamyate, yathecchadibhir atma, icchadayo gunah gunas ca dravyasamsthanah, tad yad esaiti sthanam sa atmeti, 'When the connexion between property and property-bearer is not directly perceivable, a not-perceivable propertybearer is cognized in so far as the [same] property is common to some [other visible] object, as for instance: the soul [is connected] [with perceivable properties such as] desire etc.
7)'. 3)'. *8 ) ' . This necessarily means all sounds, but unlike Aristotelian logic, NS- and NBhlogic do not use an explicit quantifier. Here, sound is the property-bearer, while non-eternity is the property of which we wish to prove that it occurs in the propertybearer, sound. As such, this statement is not yet a piece of solid 22 knowledge? for being that it requires a valid logical reason, hetu. 34)'. It is necessarily implied here that the probans (hetu) occurs in the subject of which the other property, the probandum, must be proved to occur in it.
The idea that reliable statements (sabda, agama) too, should be based on a drstanta suggests that the ideal reliable statement is not different from syllogistic reasoning. 2-3)'. Returning to the discussion on the example, we find that Paksilasvamin shows its use in the illustrative syllogism: sound is non-eternal because it has the property of production. sabdo fpy utpattidharmakatvad anityah sthalyadivad iti. udahriyate dharmayoh sadhyasadhanabhava ity udaharanam, 'Also sound, because it possesses the property of production, is non-eternal like [all produced] things [such as] vessels etc.