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By H. Matthiessen

In Epistemic Entitlement. the best to Believe Hannes Ole Matthiessen develops a social externalist account of epistemic entitlement and perceptual wisdom. the fundamental suggestion is that optimistic epistemic prestige can be understood as a selected type of epistemic right, that is a correct to think. in view that rights have outcomes for a way others are required to regard the bearer of the appropriate, they need to be publicly available. the writer consequently means that epistemic entitlement can plausibly be conceptualized as a standing that's grounded in a publicly observable perceptual state of affairs, instead of in a perceptual event as present theories of epistemic entitlement nation.
It is then argued that the sort of social externalist account of entitlement, during which the perceiver's epistemic standpoint turns into proper simply within the unprecedented case where an entitlement is challenged, can however do justice to our significant intuitions approximately first-personal epistemic phenomenology.

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452). One of Peacocke’s examples for such a complexity is the six-fold symmetry of snowflakes. Although in fact there is nothing improbable in it, we are impressed by the fact that all (undamaged) snowflakes exhibit such symmetry, rather than having any other shape. A successful explanation of a complex phenomenon is one that reduces the complex and apparently improbable features to less complex features that do not appear improbable in the same way. , p. 454). An explanation of the six-fold symmetry of snowflakes that referred to six-fold symmetrical skeletons on which snowflakes are built would be a bad explanation, partly because the explanation contains the same complexity as the explanandum.

Speaking very broadly, internalism is the thesis that knowledge (or positive epistemic status generally) requires, among other things, that the epistemic subject has some kind of reflective access to what warrants her belief. Let us call the source of warrant the ground of the belief. Then we can distinguish three internalist requirements (IRs) of different strengths (cf. Casullo 2007; Alston 1989, pp. 237–42): IR1 The ground of S’s belief that p has to be accessible. IR2 The adequacy of the ground of S’s belief that p has to be accessible.

If, however, we are concerned with a heart that malfunctions and does not pump blood, then we must explain the fact that its function is to pump blood nevertheless by the fact that its ancestors did pump blood, and existed because they did so. Functioning normally in normal conditions thus means nothing else but that an item T with the function Z produces the effect Z in such a way, and in such an environment, as we can use to explain T’s existence. g. if it is placed in a sterile container during a complicated operation where it still receives electrical signals and so continues to beat normally – without bringing about the effect of pumping blood.

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