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By Robert J. Whitehurst

Emulsifiers are crucial elements of many commercial nutrients recipes, whether or not they be extra for the aim of water/oil emulsification in its easiest shape, for textural and organoleptic amendment, for shelf lifestyles enhancement, or as complexing or stabilising brokers for different elements akin to starch or protein.

Each bankruptcy during this quantity considers one of many major chemical teams of nutrients emulsifiers. inside each one crew the buildings of the emulsifiers are thought of, including their modes of motion. this can be via a dialogue in their construction / extraction and actual features, including sensible examples in their program. Appendices cross-reference emulsifier varieties with purposes, and provides E-numbers, foreign names, synonyms and references to analytical criteria and techniques.

This is a ebook for nutrition scientists and technologists, constituents providers and caliber insurance group of workers.

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4 Emulsions In simple terms, emulsions are stable mixtures of two immiscible liquids. e. prevent sedimentation and coalescence. The other key aspect of emulsion preparation is the determination of whether oil droplets are formed in a water phase (o/w) or whether water droplets are formed in an oil phase (w/o). The fact that the type of emulsion is not determined by the ratio of the two phases can easily be seen in the example of 80% oil (or fat) and 20% water. Both emulsion types are possible! If we have 80% oil emulsified into water (oil-in-water emulsion) we have the example of mayonnaise, and if 20% of water is emulsified into oil (water-in-oil emulsion) we have the example of a margarine product.

Spray drying technology is applied to a wide variety of other liquid starting materials. If such products are emulsified systems (such as re-combined milk), then the lecithin might be added in the initial liquid stage, where it will also provide emulsifying properties. The key to success is to identify the optimal way of lecithination, depending on the processing technology and conditions, product formulation and final quality requirements. When we want to prepare an ‘instantised’ product from material that is already a powder or powder blend we discuss ‘post-process’ lecithination.

It is apparent that hydrolysed lecithins show a much higher surface activity than regular lecithins/phospholipids. g. well known from mono- and di-glycerides) as through the hydrolysis the phospholipids become more hydrophilic by loosing one lipophilic fatty acid, and the polar headgroup gains more weight in the molecular structure. Another aspect of surface activity that plays a crucial role in the formation of emulsions are kinetic effects. In an emulsification process new surface area is generated through the comminution of, for example, oil droplets.

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