By Larry Diamond, Marc F. Plattner
The most recent quantity within the acclaimed magazine of Democracy sequence addresses electoral platforms and democracy. because the variety of democracies has elevated around the globe, a heated debate has emerged between specialists approximately which process most sensible promotes the consolidation of democracy. Is proportional illustration, a majoritarian method, a mix of the 2, or another procedure the easiest for brand spanking new democracies? This booklet compares the stories of numerous international locations, from Latin the United States to southern Africa, from Uruguay, Japan, and Taiwan to Israel, Afghanistan, and Iraq.Contributors: Joel D. Barkan, Jeffrey Cason, Adeed Dawisha, Larry Diamond, Andrew Ellis, Ken Gladdish, Donald Horowitz, man Lardeyret, Arend Lijphart, Jih-wen Lin, Emanuele Ottolenghi, Marc F. Plattner, Quentin L. Quade, Benjamin Reilly, Andrew Reynolds, David Samuels, Richard Snyder, Richard Soudriette, R. Kent Weaver (2007)
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Additional resources for Electoral Systems and Democracy (A Journal of Democracy Book)
No one can answer these questions without an extended analysis that links electoral reasoning to the party system and the pattern of social cleavages. There are ways to subvert even the most carefully chosen electoral system. One very common way concerns the boundaries and size of constituencies. Constituencies with vastly different numbers of voters are a prime source of disproportional outcomes. Constituencies whose boundaries have been delimited to advantage one ethnic group over another can undo the effects of electoral systems that have ethnically conciliatory features.
Germany, for example, has a constituency-based system, but with a proportional overlay, so that legislators have reasons to respond to their constituents but parties also receive an overall number of seats that is more or less proportional to the votes they have won nationally. There is an increasing trend toward adopting hybrid systems to achieve multiple goals, as New Zealand, Italy, and Japan all have done. Some hybrid systems operate as the German one does, with plurality elections but a guarantee of proportional representation in the legislature based on the overall distribution of votes, while others utilize completely separate constituency elections and list-system PR elections.
When English-speaking countries, such as Ireland or Austra- Donald L. Horowitz 9 lia, choose proportional representation, they tend not to choose listsystem PR. Instead, they tend to opt for the single transferable vote, sometimes called the Anglo-Saxon version of PR. And in other cases when they depart from first-past-the-post, they stay with single-member constituency systems, such as the alternative vote (AV), which has been used in Australia, Papua New Guinea, and Fiji. New electoral systems have effects on party formation, party behavior, and party systems.