By Ruth Macklin
This e-book examines the moral controversies that experience surrounded the layout and behavior of foreign scientific examine backed by means of industrialized international locations or undefined, and conducted in constructing nations. Is it applicable to decrease the moral criteria followed within the industrialized global whilst accomplishing examine in constructing, or resource-poor, international locations? Ruth Macklin concludes that double criteria in scientific examine are ethically unacceptable.
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Extra info for Double Standards in Medical Research in Developing Countries
5249, Sec. 2, 107th Congress, 2d session, House of Representatives, July 26, 2002. 18. gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/, accessed February 13, 2003. 19. R. Krishnakumar, “Clinical Trials Should Promote Health Care,” interview with Dr. M. S. Valiathan, Frontline, India’s National Magazine 18:17 (August 18–31, 2001), no page numbers. 20. Karin B. Michels and Kenneth J. Rothman, “Update on Unethical Use of Placebos in Randomised Trials,” Bioethics, 17:2 (2003), 188–204. 21. Ibid. 22. Shah, “Globalizing Clinical Research,” 23.
14 These comments – the first three on one side, the second two in direct opposition – go to the heart of the debate. One side argues that different standards for research are acceptable, whereas the other maintains that a “double standard” is unethical. The final comment to consider on “standard of care” is one that makes a careful attempt to untangle the ambiguities and lack of clarity in the term: [T]his debate has been complicated by some unrecognized ambiguities in the notion of a standard of care .
In this connection, the New Yorker article on preventive vaccine trials (cited in chapter 1) quotes a comment by the chief of the bioethics branch at the NIH, who holds that it is not ethically required to provide the same care and treatment to subjects in vaccine trials in Africa that is available to subjects in similar trials in the US. ”1 This comment relies on a key distinction between justice as equality and justice as equity. How can we tell which conception of justice best applies to any particular situation?