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By Axel Hadenius

This e-book is a uniquely wide-ranging learn of the that means of democracy and the criteria which confirm its point. Drawing on information from all 132 sovereign states of the 3rd international, it first specifies the fundamental parts of democracy (the conserving of elections to choice making our bodies, and the upkeep of political liberties), after which exams theories recommended to provide an explanation for its various point via statistical research. Theories with regards to socio-economic stipulations, demographic and cultural components, and institutional preparations are explored in a cross-national viewpoint.

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It would be another matter to give the optimal criteria of democracy - according to which we could determine whether the states which fulfil the elementary criteria are more or less democratic than each other. 87 For here political democracy's own principles would give far less certain guidance (and to involve external objectives - pertinent to the society's development in general - would still be to speak of something else). Thus, the eventual result of an optimum assessment is left open. Yet it must be said that possible optimum values may not be opposed to the basic criteria so that the former are attained at the latter's expense.

This criterion affects inter alia Lebanon, where the Parliament was last elected in 1972, and Taiwan, where the great majority of the MPs, and of the assembly, which appoints the President, hold mandates from the 1940s (representing Mainland China). Thus at the last election in Taiwan, only 24 and 9 per cent of the seats respectively were filled through the vote. A corresponding requirement is that the members of the relevant organs may not be chosen in any other way than by public elections. 19 This is the case in Tanzania, for example, where 18 per cent of the members must therefore be considered as not elected.

In the face of the scrutiny which always awaits, the representative has reason to act in a way which will win the electors' approval. The role of free representative also confers a manifest advantage; it yields decision-makers who, smoothly and effectively, can enter into compromises and, with reference to the changing priorities of different groups, can carry on political barter - 'if you support me on this I shall support you on other issues'. All such practices require negotiations which for technical reasons of decision-making can only occur between a few actors who meet in person and enter into agreements.

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