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By Katja Weber

Examines postwar debates inside of Germany and Japan over tips to advertise household and neighborhood order.

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Extra info for Cultures of Order: Leadership, Language, and Social Reconstruction in Germany and Japan

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They were neither without a voice, as a caricature of their postwar position might have it, but nor were they able to say all that they might wish. In general, the directive mode of normative discourse—and its associated appeals to power, enforcement, and leadership—were delegitimized by the outcome of the war and by the new political realities of the postwar era. No serious politician in either of these two states could take a strongly directive, Hobbesian position. The debates that arose in these countries over the shape of postwar regional orders thus tended to pit Lockeans against Kantians and to invoke either assertive or commissive modes of normative discourse.

The payoff is a theory of how norms sustain distinct social orders and a clearer understanding of why language itself matters so much. 1 At the end of an era of sweeping global conflict, and confronting an entirely new set of challenges, how could they craft a stable and secure international order? What rules of conduct would they seek to establish? And what rules of thumb would they embrace in their efforts to explain the emergence of new patterns of behavior or the persistence of old ones? Like all arenas of human activity, international relations are governed by rules.

Specifically, they are likely to produce expectations on the part of those who hear them. Their normative consequences apply to the speaker, however, who is subsequently bound by the statement. 33 Finally, expressive speech acts fit words to a private world rather than a public one. ” Assertive speech acts also fit words to the world, but inasmuch as they can create obligations to consent or affirm what is being asserted, they have normative effects. Expressives create no such obligations. ” The purpose of expressives is accomplished by their utterance, and not as a result of any action that follows (even if action does follow).

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