By Valentin L. Popov
This application-oriented ebook introduces the institutions among touch mechanics and friction and with it deals a deeper realizing of tribology. It bargains with the linked phenomena of touch, adhesion, capillary forces, friction, lubrication, and put on from one constant standpoint. the writer is going into (1) tools of tough estimation of tribological amounts, (2) tools for analytical calculations which try and reduce the required complexity, (3) the crossover into numerical simulation equipment. With those equipment the writer conveys a constant view of tribological strategies in quite a few scales of significance (from nanotribology to earthquake research).
Also, method dynamic elements of tribological structures, comparable to squeal and its suppression in addition to different varieties of instabilities and spatial styles are investigated.
This publication comprises difficulties and labored suggestions for person chapters within which the reader can follow the idea to useful events and deepen the certainty of the material.
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Additional info for Contact Mechanics and Friction: Physical Principles and Applications
1 c and Fig. 3 b). This interaction energy is found through integration in the first body over the z-coordinate and multiplying it with the surface area A of the body and the atom concentration n. 3) where Q = π Cn 2 /12 . If two bodies are moved together from a large distance to “direct contact,” (meaning to a distance of r0 ), the interaction forces perform work per unit area of W Q = . 4) In order to pull the two bodies apart, the same work must be performed by external forces. 4) per unit area is required.
E. the energy that is required to create one surface) is called the surface energy density (also surface tension) γ of the body2: γ= Q . 5) This quantity determines all of the essential contact properties that relate to adhesion. 1. Let us estimate the value of the van der Waals forces. 3) with respect to h: σ =− 1 ∂U sol − sol 2Q =− 3 . e. h ≈ r0 ) the van der Waals stress is σ= 2 2Q 2 Q 4γ F =− 3 =− =− . g. in the book by K. Johnson "Contact Mechanics"). 80 2 For a value γ ≈ 1 ÷ 2 J/m2, which is typical for many metals, and a value r0 ≈ 4 ⋅10−10 m , we obtain a stress σ = 1010 N/m 2 .
Solution: If the overhead pressure on the liquid is Δp , then it forms a uniformly curved surface with a radius of curvature of R (Fig. 13): 1 Δp = . R γ lv At the same time, the angle between the surfaces of the rod and the liquid must equal to the contact angle θ . If the pressure rises, then the liquid is pressed even farther between the rods, until a critical condition is met. For contact angles of θ ≤ π / 2 , this critical condition is met when the contact points of the liquid come together from both sides of the rod (Fig.