By John Gibbons
Code-mixing is a quick constructing niche for these taken with bilingualism, sociolinguistics and utilized linguistics. simply because the language phenomena produced at first through touch among teams who didn't percentage a language - pidginization and creolization - have proved to be revealing within the research of moment language improvement and language universals, so additionally the exam of the blending of 2 or extra languages inside bilingual groups is commencing to throw mild on numerous vital matters. during this e-book John Gibbons makes use of a variety of diverse ways to code-mixing and code selection, evaluates them and makes an attempt to combine them in a composite mode of code selection. The research is found within the interesting bilingual neighborhood of Hong Kong.
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Extra resources for Code-mixing and code choice: a Hong Kong case study
There are a number of insult terms which are used to describe Chinese who speak English to one another. f. "nigger lover"). This social rule stigmatizes the use of English among Chinese who speak it reasonably well (or very well). It is at variance with social rules which operate in Singapore (see Crewe, 1977, in particular the article by Chia; and Platt, 1977), Kenya (Whiteley, 1974; Scotton, 1976), Uganda (Parkin, 1971), and India (Das Gupta, 1980). In these countries speakers who share an indigenous lingua franca nevertheless use the English component of their speech repertoire to express certain social meanings or to discuss certain topics.
As Pride & Holmes (1972: 7) write: "The study of social meaning conveyed by different languages in a multilingual community can be undertaken at two levels, the one logically preceding the other. In the first place one can examine the way languages are used on the macro-scale, using large-scale surveys to reveal community norms of language use. " Page 12 In view of this the first sociolinguistic approach that was used was the Sociology of Language approach commonly associated with Fishman. This attempts to correlate physical and social context with choices between different languages.
However, most studies of human behaviour show probabilistic patterning rather than simple decisions, and the same may hold true of code choice. Hence Fishman, Cooper & Ma et al. (1971) present their findings in terms of statistical probabilities. This does not mean that this type of decision tree is not usable, but rather that it operates with two qualifications. First (as users intend), it should be seen as displaying social norms Page 14 Figure 1 Ordered dimensions in the choice of language Source: Rubin, 1968: 109 (which can be violated) rather than absolute decisions.