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By Jason Brownlee

Faraway from sweeping the globe uniformly, the 'third wave of democratization' left burgeoning republics and resilient dictatorships in its wake. utilizing greater than a yr of unique fieldwork in Egypt, Iran, Malaysia, and the Philippines, Jason Brownlee indicates that the combined list of modern democratization is better deciphered via a ancient and institutional method of authoritarian rule. Exposing the interior enterprises that constitution elite clash, Brownlee demonstrates why the serious soft-liners wanted for democratic transitions were dormant in Egypt and Malaysia yet outspoken in Iran and the Philippines. by means of developing how ruling events originated and why they bog down swap, Brownlee illuminates the matter of latest authoritarianism and informs the merchandising of sturdy democracy.

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The first part of this chapter revisits the dialogue between voluntarist and structural approaches by retrospectively testing the explanatory power of several early social structural accounts, which relied on slow-changing socioeconomic variables and were subsequently criticized for minimizing the role of individual agency and leadership. This discussion suggests the usefulness of studying these social structural variables for understanding the third wave of democratization and its undercurrents.

7 years). 9 By treating the institutions of authoritarianism as independent variables rather than derivations of underlying social cleavages, Geddes’s variables were one step less distal than the theories of Lipset and Moore from recent regime outcomes. Her theory, along with those of the forebears whose works she synthesized, also provided a framework in which to situate transitions from authoritarian rule previously thought to be contingent. Given the recent trends in global democratization and authoritarianism, such an approach is warranted and needed.

0:22 P1: KNP 0521869515c01 CUNY736/Brownlee 30 0 521 86951 X May 8, 2007 Authoritarianism in an Age of Democratization post-Soviet states for which economic data were available (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan). There are three main regime types (military, personalist, single-party) as well as the monarchy regime type and a series of mixed types (military-personal, single-party hybrids, and regimes that blend elements of military, personal, and single-party rule).

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