Download Apprehension and Argument: Ancient Theories of Starting by Miira Tuominen PDF

By Miira Tuominen

This publication deals the 1st synoptic examine of the way the first parts in wisdom buildings have been analysed in antiquity from Plato to overdue historic commentaries. It argues that, within the Platonic-Aristotelian culture, the query of beginning issues was once taken care of from targeted issues of view: as a query of ways we collect simple wisdom; and as a query of the premises we may possibly instantly settle for within the line of argumentation.

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Both readings assume that the two notions qs,twl4a and diatwl4a are exhaustive and mutually exclusive. Every claim is either in accordance or in discordance with a given claim they are compared to, and two claims can never be both in accordance and in discordance with each other. Now, according to the first reading the method of hypothesis would recommend us to take every claim consistent with our hypothesis to be true. 23 Therefore, the first reading seems to be too strong. , Kanayama (2000, 62–68).

Infinite disjunctions including the hypothesis, because a good explanation should be specific concerning the question of which claim one is explaining. If we take the decisive criterion to be explanatory power, the first phase of the method provides us with a way of constructing a comprehensive and coherent set of statements involving explanatory relations. A set of statements of this kind can be called a theory. It includes the hypothesis which is the strongest in the sense that it gives the best explanation for the explananda, 31 The term aår4a is a very difficult one to translate; see Vlastos (1969) and Rowe (1993, 49).

Eventually, the explanatory chains constructed and evaluated by the method of hypothesis can be attached to an unhypothetical principle that cannot be reduced to anything prior. In Plato the most likely candidate for such a principle is the form of the good in Republic VII. The good is a superior explanatory principle for all things in the sense that it accounts for the fact that the cosmos we live in is ordered. In addition, the fact that there is an intelligible structure governed by the good behind our perceptual environment, explains why teleological explanations apply.

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