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Additional resources for Analytical Applications of Circular Dichroism
Time-resolved information), or for static measurement situations, the same spectral region can be repetitively scanned and spectral addition effected with a concomitant improvement in the measured SNR. For randomly distributed noise in N measurements, the SNR will improve by the factor Nln. There is no fundamental reason why this approach can not be applied to CD measurements and, for many types of studies, for example, in studies of protein folding, time-resolved information will be critical to discerning the subtle features that govern the three dimensional shape of the biologically active entity.
The usable wavelength region (that is, the wavelength region over which the source can maintain some minimum level of spectral radiance), and the stability of the source. The fact that CD is inherently a background limited measurement sets the minimum level of output radiance. Further, for routine measurements over the range of CD applications cited earlier, source stability must be at the 50 ppm level in order to be able to differentiate the subtle changes indicative of the CD measurement from random fluctuations in the background.
Wavelength selection was accomplished using a grating-based monochromator and a long-path detection cell was used to improve measurement sensitivity. However, as before, the volume of this cell precludes its use with high resolution modes of GC. The unique advantage of this system is the extended UV operating range. Conventional arc lamp-based CD systems can not provide reasonable measurement sensitivity in the spectral region below approximately 180 nm. However, for saturated hydrocarbons which are optically active, this is the region where they absorb and where the CD must be monitored.