Download Analysis Without Measurement by Donald W. Katzner PDF

By Donald W. Katzner

In plying their alternate, social scientists usually are faced with major phenomena that seem incapable of size. prior perform could recommend that tips on how to care for those instances is to paintings tougher at discovering applicable measures in order that normal quantitative research can nonetheless be utilized. Professor Katzner's method, even if is kind of diversified. instead of targeting the development of measures, he increases the query of ways such phenomena might be investigated and understood within the absence of numerical gauges to symbolize them.

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To comprehend mortal acts, "it is sufficient to find typical motives of typical actors which explain the act as a typical one 33 34 Notes on measurement arising out of a typical situation" (Schutz [27, p. 13]). The approach is thoroughly ingrained practically everywhere in behavioral science. In view of the foregoing discussion, it is not surprising that man's efforts to classify date back (along with system ideas) to antiquity. Jung [15, pp. 510, 542], who devised the introvert-extravert scheme of psychological types [15], traces them to Greece five centuries before the birth of Christ.

In the first century, Dionysius the Areopagite speculated about a hierarchic order among choirs of angels. Nicholas of Cusa, in the fifteenth century, perceived conflicts among parts within a whole leading to a higher form of unity. Leibniz's seventeenth-century hierarchy of monads resembles those of today. The nineteenth century produced Hegel's dialectic, the Marxian application of it, and Fechner's anticipation of modern ecosystems. It was not until the 1930s, however, that the concept of system was separated from the particular processes it was used to describe.

4 The idea of a system 25 innovation and institutional change. A discipline that formulates and tests such laws and theories is a science. Quantification is not a necessary condition. Concepts may be significant without being numbered. (Brodbeck [6, p. 547]) Thus it is quite legitimate for a scientist to work in terms of qualities as opposed to quantities. A quality is a descriptive property of something. A quantity is an amount of a quality. All quantities, then, are "measured" qualities, although it is not yet known how - if, indeed, it is even possible - to quantify all qualities.

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