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By Diane Larsen-Freeman

Realizing how humans research and fail to benefit moment and international languages is more and more acknowledged as a severe social and psycholinguistic factor. moment languages are extremely important to various teams of individuals, starting from refugees to school scholars dealing with overseas language standards. This ebook offers a synthesis of empirical findings on moment and overseas language studying by way of young ones and adults, emphasising the layout and execution of applicable research.

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The data from the study were collected by means of diary entries recorded by Bailey during her French course. The entries consisted of observations of her fellow students and the teacher. There also were introspective comments since Bailey scrutinized her own experience as well. The positive qualities and the limitations of this type of study will be discussed below. 3 Non-participant observation As with its participant counterpart, researchers engaged in non-participant observation do not entertain any hypotheses at the outset of a study.

Since there are no a priori hypotheses to be tested, researchers' attention is freed to discover any potential factors which could significantly influence the SLA process. In fact, such studies are often referred to as hypothesis-generating, since the scope of researchers' perspectives is not restricted they can look for patterns in naturally occurring data and, once detected, generate hypotheses which might account for them. There are, however, limitations to these research methodologies. It can seriously be questioned as to whether data gathered in observational studies are in fact natural.

To all these folks, we offer heartfelt thanks. Diane Larsen-Freeman School for International Training Michael H. Long University of Hawaii 30 31 Acknowledgements We are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material: Holt, Rinehart and Winston for a diagnostic passage from Manual of American English Pronunciation by Clifford Prator and Betty Wallace Robinett; JHWPESL for a table (Experimental studies of the effect of input modification on comprehension) from 'The effects of linguistic simplifications and elaborative modifications on L2 comprehension' by K.

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