By Kerstin Skog, Jan Alexander
It really is referred to now that heating carbohydrate-rich meals may cause the formation of acrylamide and additional examine is probably going to teach that different unsafe compounds are shaped in the course of the warmth remedy of meals. as a result assessing the dangers posed to shoppers by means of acrylamide and different in all likelihood carcinogenic and genotoxic compounds equivalent to heterocyclic amines and PhIP is a concern for the nutrition undefined. This new ebook offers the newest examine within the sector, discussing the mechanisms of formation of detrimental compounds in the course of warmth remedy, the research of harmful compounds, easy methods to examine the dangers they pose and novel how to reduce their formation in nutrients items.
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Additional info for Acrylamide and Other Hazardous Compounds in Heat-treated Foods
Being a by-product of the Maillard reaction, acrylamide levels are affected by the same factors that influence flavour and colour formation during heating. , the reducing sugar and free amino acid content of food), time-temperature conditions during processing, moisture levels, pH, and the presence of additives. Reactant levels are influenced not only by the type of food but also by cultivar, soil conditions, harvesting times, and storage conditions of the raw food. , 2003), all of which are fairly straightforward solutions, based on prior knowledge of the factors affecting the Maillard reaction.
Addition of free asparagine Increase in acrylamide concentration. Addition of fructose No change in acrylamide content. Color Acrylamide formation related to color. Toasting Increase in acrylamide amount with toasting time and color; kinetic model established. CIAA (2004) Fermented Fermentation rye and (yeast and wheat sourdough) Up to 87% reduction in acrylamide amount upon extended fermentation times. Yeast utilizes available free asparagine within two hours incubation. Only marginal effects in terms of reduction of acrylamide in sourdough fermented bread.
Prior to industrial usage, questions related to the regulatory approval, labeling, and safety will need to be addressed. Process management The thermal input and final moisture content are decisive factors in the formation of acrylamide. , 2004). e. hottest and driest zone), and increases in the bread crust with baking time and temperature, contributing up to 99% of the total acrylamide in the whole loaves. Thus, consistently lower concentrations of acrylamide are found in the bread crumb (Sadd and Hamlet, 2005).