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By Robert Carlson

The sequence builds an intensive number of top of the range descriptions of languages all over the world. every one quantity deals a finished grammatical description of a unmarried language including absolutely analyzed pattern texts and, if acceptable, a thesaurus and different suitable info that's on hand at the language in query. There aren't any regulations as to language kin or quarter, and even though targeted cognizance is paid to hitherto undescribed languages, new and necessary remedies of higher recognized languages also are incorporated. No theoretical version is imposed at the authors; the single criterion is a excessive usual of clinical caliber.

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1. Consonants 11 b. cyde + women cydebii 'the women' -pu (5) gender 2 definite singular: -ke a. bdN- + baboon b. bahouse + -ke bdgke DEF(G2S) 'the baboon' -ke bag6 'the house' ['baRe] (6) gender 4 definite: -te a. kddN- + cotton b. kyara meat + -te DEF(G4) -te köönte 'the cotton' kyaäre /kyaäde/ ['kxa:re] 'the meat' Clitics may also undergo voicing. Individual clitics and speakers differ among themselves in behavior. For example the clause final subordinator k6 (which marks relative clauses, adverbial time clauses, and locative questions) is almost always voiced (and flapped) by some speakers except when it follows a word ending in an unstressed /gV/.

Pa [pa] come [fi] fy) python [f9i] fyeere urinate [fje:re] fyää hurry [f 9 a:] cf. IMP cf. GlP cf. 1. IMP [b 3 i:] * cf. back [bYe] cf. agreeable bya drink [b^a] cf. ba river [ba] Between labials and back vowels the realizations of secondary release are [φ], [β], or simply [w]. With non-high vowels, the fricative release shades into the approximant. Examples with /p/ are: [ρΦϋΟΪ] cf. puni all [P un i] pworo adobe [ρφ^Γο] cf. better [ρφλν3Γθ] cf. G3P [bßw2Ri:] cf. big [bu:qg] cf. boro sack [boro] cf.

Vowels (71) Ku it 39 Ku kan cedga ä. ' kan cedgi ά. DEF to Cedgi ä kare ä kwo. DEF PERF go SC finish Cedqa a kära a kwd. ' U pye ä she NEG PERF Upye a kärä έηά ä? ' kare anf ä? Q As shown here, most vowel-initial clitics begin with /a/. 6 below. The vowels of third person anaphoric pronouns are unstressed, and most of these assimilate as expected (exceptions will be dealt with in the next section): (72) Ku it(G2S) ä ßwo. PERF good => Ka äßwo. ' Li it(G3S) ä β wo. PERF good La ä β wo. 5. Approximant formation When three of the eight anaphoric pronouns precede a vowel-initial clitic, they do not allow the assimilation of their vowels as described above.

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